When molecules add or lose electrons during a chemical reaction, charge carriers are created called ions (electrostatic bonds). The essence of an ionic bond is an electrostatic attraction between two ions with opposite charges. So what is an ionic bond, how is it formed? The following article will answer this question in the most detail.
What is the definition of ionic and ionic bond?
In this section, we need to grasp the basic definitions of ions, ionic bonds, and their classification.
Definition of ions and ionic bonds
- Ion concept: Ion (charge) is the process by which a group of atoms or atoms loses or gains one or more electrons.
- Definition of ionic bond: An ionic bond, or charge bond, is a chemical bond that is essentially an electrostatic attraction between two ions with opposite charges. An ionic bond is usually a bond between atoms of a non-metallic element and atoms of a metallic element. Metal atoms have small electronegativities, easy to lose electrons to create positive ions. (According to Wikipedia)
Classification of positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions)
Ions are divided into two types, positive cations and negative anions. Specifically, in the process of ionizing an atom or group of atoms, it will gain or lose electrons to form cations or anions.
Anions are ions with a negative charge formed by neutral atoms. When an atom during ionization draws one or more electrons into it, ions are formed. Normally, anions are formed by non-metallic elements, for example Oxygen forms anion -2, Chlorine forms anion -1, etc. Since these atoms are very electronegative, they attract electrons. and form anions.
Cations are positively charged ions that are formed when neutral atoms or groups of atoms lose electrons. When electrons are removed, the number of protons in the nucleus is higher, so the atom is positively charged. Cations are formed from metals at group S in the periodic table. Because the cations have different charge sizes depending on the number of electrons lost, different cations are formed such as: Ca2+, Al3+,…
What are monatomic and polyatomic ions?
- A monoatomic ion is an ion that has only one atom, with a positive or negative charge. For example: Mg2+. Al3+, Cl-, F-,…
- A polyatomic ion is an ion made up of many atoms bonded together to form groups of atoms.
For example: NO3-. SO42-, NH4+,…
How are ionic bonds formed?
As we all know, ionic bond is a bond formed by electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
For example: Na+ + Cl- → NaCl. The bond between Na+ and Cl- is an ionic bond.
Conditions of formation
An ionic bond is only formed when the following two conditions are met:
Bonds are formed by elements with different properties (between metals and non-metals).
Except for some typical cases, the electronegativity difference between two ionic bonded atoms must be >= 1.7.
We can rely on the following signs to identify an ionic bond:
Compound molecules are formed from electromorphic metals to typical nonmetals. For example: NaCl, CaCl2, BaF2,… These compounds all contain ionic bonds- a bond formed between a non-metallic anion and a metal anion.
For example: MgSO4, NH4Cl,… These are all ionic bonds – this bond is formed between a non-metal anion and a metal cation and an acid-base anion.
The lattice structure of the ionic bond
The lattice structure of an ionic bond is the combination of many ionic molecules into one giant bond. And this arrangement in a geometrical structure is called a lattice.
For example: NaCl does not contain one Na ion and one Cl ion, this ionic bond is an arrangement of many Na+ and Cl- ions into a crystal lattice, with a ratio of 1-1.
Properties of compounds with ionic bonds
From the characteristics of ionic bonds, it can be seen that compounds with ionic bonds will often have common properties such as:
State: Ionic solid exists at room temperature and in crystalline form.
Structure: Usually ions are arranged in a lattice structure.
Conductivity: In solid crystals, ions do not conduct electricity, but in solution they do.
Fragile under pressure: When placed under pressure, ionic compounds break easily and bonds break along planes.
Electrostatic attraction: An ionic bond is a bond with a strong electrostatic attraction. Therefore, ionic compounds are generally known to be very hard, with high melting and boiling points due to their relatively strong ionic bonds. For example, NaCl has a melting point of 800 degrees, MgO is 2800 degrees.
Conductor: In the molten state and when dissolved in solution. In the solid state usually does not conduct electricity.
How are ionic bonds and covalent bonds different?
Both are bonds that occur during a chemical reaction, but what is the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond?
Let’s explore this difference through the definition, nature of bonding and electronegativity difference in the following comparison table:
Bonds are formed by electrostatic attraction creating bonds between oppositely charged ions.
A bond is formed between two atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons.
The nature of the link
The essence of ionic bonding is the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
The essence of covalent bonding is the process of using one or more pairs of electrons in common.
There is an electronegativity difference >= 1.7.
0 < Electronegativity difference < 1.7.
Instructions for solving some exercises on ionic bonding in Chemistry 10th Textbook with solutions
Let’s apply the knowledge learned above to practice some of the following 10 Chemistry exercises on ionic bonding:
Lesson 1 (page 59 of the 10th Chemistry Textbook):
The chemical bond in NaCl is formed by:
A. Two atomic nuclei attract electrons very strongly.
B. Each Na and Cl atom share one electron.
C. Each of those atoms gives up or gains electrons to become oppositely attracted ions.
D. Na → Na+ e ; Cl + e → Cl- ; Na+ + Cl- → NaCl.
Choose the best answer
Answer: D is correct
Lesson 2 (page 59 of the 10th Chemistry Textbook):
Table salt in solid form is:
A. NaCl . molecules
B. Na+ and Cl- ions
C. Cubic crystals: Na+ and Cl- ions are evenly distributed on each vertex.
D. Cubic crystals: Na+ and Cl- ions are evenly distributed into individual molecules.
Choose the best answer.
Answer: C is correct
Lesson 3 (page 60 of the 10th Chemistry Textbook):
a) Write the electron configuration of the lithium cation (Li+) and the oxide anion (O2-).
b) Where do the charges in Li+ and O2- ions come from?
c) Which noble gas atom has the same electron configuration as Li+ and which noble gas atom has the same electron configuration as O2-.
d) Why can 1 oxygen atom combine with 2 lithium atoms?
a) The electron configuration of the lithium cation (Li+) is 1s2 and the oxide anion (O2-) is 1s22s22p6.
b) The charge in Li+ comes from the loss of 1e, the charge in O2- comes from O gaining 2 more e.
c) The noble gas atom He has the same electron configuration as Li+ .
The noble gas atom Ne has the same electron configuration as O2-
d) Since each lithium atom can only give up 1e, an oxygen atom gains 2e.
2Li → 2Li+ + 2e;
O + 2e → O2-;
2Li+ + O2- → Li2O.
Lesson 4 (page 60 of the 10th Chemistry Textbook):
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Exercises on ionic bonding for students to practice
In addition to the exercises in the 10th chemistry textbook, here are some related exercises that Monkey synthesizes for them to practice together:
I/ QUESTIONS SECTION
Question 1: An ionic bond is a chemical bond formed by electrostatic attraction between
A. Anions and free electrons
B. Ions carry a charge of the same sign
C. The nucleus of one atom and the nucleus of another atom
D. Cations and anions
Question 2: Which of the following particles is involved in chemical bonding?
B. Neutron Particles
D. Atomic nucleus
Question 3: An ionic bond is formed between
A. two metal atoms.
B. two nonmetal atoms.
C. one strong metal atom and one strong non-metallic atom.
D. a weak metal atom and a weak nonmetal atom.
Question 4: Which of the following compounds contains only ionic bonds?
A. KCl; MgO; BaCl2
B. BaCl2; MgO; H2O
C. NaBr; Na2O; KNO3
D. SO2; H2SO4; HClO4
Question 5: In a crystal of NaCl, the elements Na and Cl are ionic and have the number of electrons, respectively
A. 10 and 18
B. 12 and 16
C. 10 and 10
D. 11 and 17
Question 6: The ionic lattice has which of the following properties?
A. Stable, high melting point and low boiling point
B. Stable, rather high melting and boiling points
C. Stable, hot and low boiling point
Question 7: Which of the following molecules has the most polar bonds?
Question 8: Which of the following statements is not true?
A. An ionic bond is a bond formed by accepting electrons
B. An ionic bond is a bond between two atoms with an electronegativity difference greater than 1 .
C. An ionic bond is a bond formed by the sharing of electrons.
D. Ionic bonds are formed by electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Question 9: The bonds in which of the following molecules have the most properties of ionic bonds?
Question 10: The ionization energy of an atom is:
A. The energy released by the atom when forming an ionic bond
B. Energy released when an atom gains electrons
C. Energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the ground state
D. The energy required to give an atom an extra electron
II/ DISCUSSION SECTION
Question 1. Write the electron formula and structural formula of the following molecules: PH3, SO2
Question 2. Write the electron formula, structural formula of HClO, HCN, HNO2.
Question 3. Write the structural formulas of the following molecules and ions: H2SO3, Na2SO4, HClO4, CuSO4, NaNO3, CH3COOH, NH4NO3, H4P2O7.
Question 4. Write the electron formula, structural formula of the molecules: NH3, C2H2, C2H4, CH4, Cl2, HCl, H2O.
Question 5. Write structural formulas of the following molecules and ions: NH4+, Fe3O4, KMnO4, Cl2O7
Question 6. Write the electron formula and structural formula of the following substances: HNO3, Al(OH)3, K2Cr2O7, N2O5, Al2S3, H2CrO4, PCl5
Question 7: Determine the oxidation numbers of the elements in the following compounds, elements and ions:
a) H2S, S, H2SO3, H2SO4.
b) HCl, HClO, NaClO2, HClO3.
c) Mn, MnCl2, MnO2, KMnO4.
Given the following molecules : C2H2 (1) ; BF3 (2) ; BeCl2 (3) ; C2H4 (4) ; CH4 (5) ; Cl2 (6) ; H2 (7) ; H2O (8) ; NH3 (9) ; HCl (10). In the above molecules, the formation of bonds in the molecules is due to:
a. The sp hybridization of valence AOs is:
A. (1), (3), (6).
B. (1), (2), (3), (5).
C. (1), (3), (4), (7).
D. (1), (3).
b. The sp2 hybridization of valence AOs is:
A. (2), (4).
B. (2), (6).
C. (2), (3), (4).
D.A, B, C.
b. Sp3 hybridization of valence AOs is:
A. (5), (6), (8), (10).
B. (5), (8), (9).
C. (3), (5), (8), (9).
D. (5), (6), (8), (9).
Question 8: Given electronegativity Cs : 0.79 ; Three : 0.89 ; H : 2,2 ; Cl : 3.16 ; S : 2.58 ; N : 3.04 ; O : 3.44 to consider the polarity of bonds in the molecules of the following substances: NH3, H2S, H2O, CsCl. Which of these substances has ionic bonds?
Question 9: X, A, Z are elements with nuclear charges of 9, 19, 8.
a) Write the electron configurations of the atoms of these elements.
b) Predict possible chemical bonds between pairs of X and A, A and Z, Z and X.
Question 10: For electronegativity: Be (1.5), Al (1.5), Mg (1,2), Cl (3.0), N (3.0), H (2,1), S (2,5), O (3.5). Which of the following substances has an ionic bond?
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The above article has provided the most detailed theory of ionic bonding with practical exercises in Chemistry 10 Textbook. Hope you have more useful knowledge around ions, ionic bonds and the process of acquiring effective lessons. Visit Monkey’s website every day for more interesting information about Chemistry!
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