Aluminum, also known as Aluminium, is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon) and the most common metal in the Earth’s crust. This is also a metal that has many applications in industry and life such as making household appliances, electrical conductors … Let’s find out detailed information about what metal is aluminum and its characteristics in this article. Compiled below from Monkey.
Definition of what metal is aluminum and how to name it
Aluminum is a chemical element in the periodic table of elements, symbol is Al, atomic mass is 27. In fact, in nature it is very difficult to find a source of pure aluminum minerals, mainly alloys.
Physical properties of aluminum
Learning what aluminum is a metal cannot ignore important physical properties such as color, melting temperature, state, thermal conductivity … Here are a few physical properties of aluminum for your reference. :
Color: Aluminum is silvery white, light metallic.
Melting temperature: 660 degrees Celsius.
Ability to conduct electricity and heat: Aluminum metal has the ability to conduct electricity and heat very well.
Properties: Aluminum is very light, flexible, can be laminated or spun.
4 chemical properties of aluminum
Aluminum has the chemical properties of metals such as: Reacting with non-metals, reacting with acidic solutions (except for cold concentrated HNO3, H2SO4), salt solutions of metals are less active. Aluminum reacts with alkaline solution (According to Chemistry textbook 9, Vietnam Education Publishing House).
Specifically, each feature is as follows:
Reaction of aluminum with nonmetals
Aluminum is a metal that can react with oxygen to form oxides and react with many other non-metals such as sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl2)… to form salts.
Reaction of aluminum with oxygen
Experiment with sprinkling aluminum powder on the flame of an alcohol lamp. Observe that there is a phenomenon of bright aluminum burning to form white solids. Thus, it can be confirmed that aluminum burns in oxygen to form Al2O3.
The reaction equation is as follows:
4Al (white solid) + 3O2 (colorless gas) → t°2Al2O3 (white solid)
Conclusion: Under normal conditions, aluminum reacts with oxygen to form a thin stable layer of Al2O3. This oxide layer has the ability to protect aluminum objects, preventing aluminum from reacting with oxygen in the air and water.
Reaction of aluminum with other nonmetals
In addition to oxygen, aluminum also reacts with many other nonmetals such as S, cl2 to form salts such as Al2S3, AlCl3.
The reaction equation when aluminum reacts with chlorine gas at room temperature to form aluminum chloride salts:
2Al (white solid) + 3Cl2 (yellow-green gas) → 2AlCl3 (white solid)
Aluminum is a metal that reacts with acidic solutions
Aluminum metal reacts with some acidic solutions such as: hydrochloric acid (HCl), dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and releases hydrogen (H2). We have the following example:
2Al (white solid) + 6HCl (colorless dd) -> 2AlCl3 (colorless dd) + 3H2
Note: Aluminum metal does not react with cold, concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and cold, concentrated nitric acid (HNO3).
Reaction of aluminum with salt solution
To find out how aluminum is a metal, and how it reacts with salt solutions, we perform an experiment where an aluminum wire is placed in a solution of copper(II) chloride (CuCl2). A red solid is observed on the outside of the aluminum wire. Aluminum gradually dissolves and the blue color of the solution fades. Thus, aluminum has the ability to displace copper from copper(II) chloride solution.
2Al (white solid) + 3CuCl2 (dd blue) → 2AlCl3 (dd colorless) + 3Cu (red solid)
In addition to CuCl2, aluminum metal is also capable of reacting with many salt solutions of less chemically active metals, producing aluminum salts and a new metal. For example, aluminum can react with AgNO3 solution.
Aluminum metal reacts with alkaline solution
Experimenting with aluminum wire into a test tube containing sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) shows that colorless gas is released and aluminum gradually dissolves. The reaction is expressed as follows:
2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O → 2NaAlO2 + 3H2↑
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How is aluminum produced?
In nature, aluminum exists in the form of oxides and salts. The raw material for aluminum production is bauxite ore with the main composition of Al2O3.
The aluminum production process takes place in 2 steps:
Step 1: React with alkaline solution to separate Al2O3 to clean raw materials.
Step 2: Electrolyze molten aluminum oxide and criolite in an electrolytic bath, yielding aluminum and oxygen.
2Al2O3 → molten electrolytic criolite 4Al + 3O2
Applications of aluminum in life and industry
Aluminum and aluminum alloys are widely used in daily life such as manufacturing household appliances, electrical conductors, heat conductors, building materials, etc.
Applications of aluminum in construction
The construction industry uses aluminum as a raw material to produce windows, awnings, partitions, aluminum frames, containers …
We can easily see the application of aluminum in large projects such as skyscrapers, sports architectures, etc.
Applications of aluminum in industry
With its light, durable and malleable properties, aluminum is an important metal in industrial production. The application of aluminum in industry is related to the production of machine frames, radiators, truck bodies, etc.
Applications of aluminum metal in the consumer goods industry
Some consumer goods such as display cabinets, curtain frames, clothes hangers, ladders, pots and pans… all involve aluminum in the production stage. In general, consumables made from aluminum are considered to be durable, aesthetically pleasing and cost-effective.
Aluminum used in interior decoration
Aluminum metal is also used quite commonly in interior decoration, mainly as decorative aluminum splints connecting the edges of wooden floors, covering the defects of material joints, used in angular positions such as stairs. , ceiling, bathroom wall…
Exercises to help understand what metal is aluminum in textbooks with answers
Some textbook exercises will help you consolidate your knowledge of what metal is aluminum.
Exercise 1 (Chemistry Textbook 9, page 57)
Fill in the table the properties corresponding to the application of aluminum.
Properties of aluminum
Applications of aluminum
Good electrical conductivity
Making electrical conductors
Build airplanes, cars, trains
Flexible, can be rolled into utensils, good thermal conductivity, melting at high temperatures.
Making household tools: Pots…
Lesson 2 (Chemistry Textbook 9, page 58)
Drop a piece of aluminum into test tubes containing the following solutions:
Tell me what happened? Explain and write chemical equations.
a/ When dropping aluminum flakes into MgSO4, there will be no reaction because the chemical activity of Mg > Al.
b/ Drop the aluminum piece into CuCl2, observe that the aluminum piece gradually dissolves, the blue color of the solution fades, there is a red solid attached to the aluminum surface.
2Al + 3CuCl2 →2AlCl3 + 3Cu↓
c/ Dropping aluminum flakes into AgNO3 shows the phenomenon of aluminum flakes (Al) gradually dissolving, with a gray solid sticking out of Al.
Al + 3AgNO3 → Al(NO3)3 + 3Ag↓
d/ Drop the aluminum piece into HCl solution with hydrogen gas rising.
2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2↑
Lesson 3 (Chemistry textbook 9, page 58)
Should aluminum buckets, pots and pans be used to store lime, slaked lime or construction mortar? Explain.
We should not use aluminum buckets, pots or pots to store lime, slaked water or construction mortar. The reason is that, if these items are used, they will be damaged very quickly because lime or lime water contains Ca(OH)2 which is an alkaline substance, capable of reacting with aluminum oxide (Al2O3 – outer shell). aluminum objects), leading to aluminum corrosion.
Al2O3 + Ca(OH)2 → Ca(AlO2)2 + H2O
2Al + Ca(OH)2 + 2H2O → Ca(AlO2)2 + 3H2↑
Great aluminum exercise for students to practice together
In addition to the exercises in the chemistry textbook 9, here are some accompanying exercises for you to practice together:
Lesson 1: The position of Al (z = 13) in the periodic table is
A. cell 13, period 3, group IIIA.
B. cell 13, period 3, group IIIB.
C. cell 13, period 3, group IA.
D. cell 13, period 3, group IB.
Lesson 2: Which of the following statements is not true?
A. In industry, Al metal is produced from bauxite ore.
B. Al(OH)3 reacts with HCl solution and KOH solution.
C. Al metal is soluble in cold, concentrated HNO3 solution.
D. In chemical reactions, Al metal only acts as a reducing agent.
Exercise 3: At room temperature, Al metal can react with which of the following solutions?
A. Mg(NO3)2. B. Ca(NO3)2.
C. KNO3. D. Cu(NO3)2.
Exercise 4: Which of the following chemical reactions is not an endothermic reaction?
A. Al reacts with heated Fe2O3.
B. Al reacts with heated CuO.
C. Al reacts with heated Fe3O4.
D. Al reacts with hot concentrated H2SO4 acid.
Exercise 5: Mixture X includes Na and Al. If mg of X is added to an excess of water, V liters of gas are released. If mg X is also added to the NaOH solution (excess), then 1.75V liters of gas is obtained. The mass percent composition of Na in X is (knowing the volumes of gases measured under the same conditions)
A. 39.87%. B. 77.31%.
C. 49.87%. D. 29.87%.
Exercise 6: For mg of Al, react completely with dilute (excess) HNO3 solution, yielding 4.48 liters of NO gas (construction, the only reduction product). The value of m is
A. 4.05. B. 8,10.
C. 2.70. D. 5.40.
Lesson 7: Which of the following chemicals can be used to distinguish 3 solids Mg, Al, Al2O3 in separate bottles?
A. Dilute H2SO4. B. NaOH.
C. Concentrated HCl. D. Ammonia.
Exercise 8: Al, Al(OH)3 can react with both of the following solutions?
A. Na2SO4, KOH. B. NaOH, HCl.
C. KCl, NaNO3. D. NaCl, H2SO4.
Lesson 9: Which of the following is not a characteristic of aluminum?
A. In cell 13, period 2, group IIIA.
B. Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s23p1.
C. The crystal is made up of face-centered cubic.
D. Characteristic oxidation level +3.
Lesson 10: Al metal does not react with which of the following solutions?
A. Dilute NaOH. B. Condensed, cooled H2SO4.
C. Concentrated, hot H2SO4. D. Dilute H2SO4.
Lesson 11: Use m grams of Al to completely reduce 1.6 grams of Fe2O3 (thermic aluminum reaction). The product after reaction reacts with the excess amount of NaOH solution to create 0.672 liters of gas (dktc). The value of m is
A. 0.540 grams. B. 0.810 grams.
C. 1,080 grams. D. 1,755 grams.
Lesson 12: The main raw material used to produce aluminum is
A. pyrite ore. B. bauxite ore.
C. magnetite ore. D. dolomite ore.
Exercise 13: For the reaction: aAl + bHNO3 → cAl(NO3)3 + dNO + eH2O.
The coefficients a, b, c, d, and e are integers, in minimal form. Sum (a + b) equals
A. 5. B. 4.
C. 7. D. 6.
Exercise 14: For 15.6 grams of a mixture of Al and Al2O3 powders, react with an excess of KOH solution. When the reaction was finished, 6.72 liters of H2 were obtained (construction). The mass percent of Al in the mixture is
A. 34.62%. B. 65.38%.
C. 51.92%. D. 48.08%.
Exercise 15: Give the following statements:
(a) Aluminum is a light metal that conducts electricity and heat well
(b) The raw material for the production of aluminum is bauxite ore
(c) Alum is a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminum and potassium with the formula K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.12H2O
(d) The characteristic oxidation number of aluminum in the compound is +3
Aluminum is a common metal and has many useful applications in life, but it also has certain impacts on human health as well as the environment. For human health, high levels of aluminum exposure will cause anemia, cardiac arrest, osteomalacia, glucose intolerance… The environmental impact is mainly due to some acidification problems. Accumulation of aluminum in plants, animals, soil and water has the potential to harm them.
The above general article has sent readers detailed information about what metal aluminum is. Please visit Monkey.edu.vn website often to learn more useful Chemistry knowledge or other useful Math and Physics knowledge!
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